Irin illar da gurbatacciyar iska ke yi wa mutum

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Gurbatacciyar iska ta fi illa ga lafiyar mutane fiye da shan taba ko barasa, inda wannan barazanar ke kara kamari a wuraren da aka fi samun gurbatacciyar iskar -wato Kudancin Asia da kuma China, kamar yadda bincike ya tabbatar.

Amma duk da haka tallafin da aka ware don tunkarar kalubalen kadan ne daga cikin adadin da aka ware domin yaki da cututtuka, in ji wani bincike daga Cibiyar manufofin makamashi a Jami’ar Chicago (EPIC).

Rahoton shekara-shekara na cibiyar kan ingantacciyar iska ya nuna cewa gurbatacciyar iskar da ke fitowa daga salansar mota da kuma ma’aikatu da wutar daji da makamantansu – ta kasance “barazana mafi girma ga lafiyar jama’a.”

Idan da duniya za ta yi kokarin rage wadannan ababen da ke jawo gurbacewar iska domin samun daidaito, kamar yadda Hukumar Lafiya ta Duniya ta ce, da kuwa mutanne za su kara shekara 2.3 kan shekarun rayuwarsu kamar yadda wasu bayanai daga 2021 suka nuna.

Ana alakanta kananan kwayoyin da ke gurbata iska da cutar huhu da zuciya da shanyewar rabin jiki da kuma daji.

Afirka da Asia sun fi shafuwa

Amfani da sinadarin tobacco wanda ke cikin sigari na rage rayuwa da shekaru 2.2 inda rashin samun ingantaccen abinci ga yara ke da alhakin rage rayuwa da shekara 1.6.

Kashi uku bisa hudu na illolin da ake fuskanta sakamakon gurbatacciyar iska ya ta’allaka ne a kasa uku – Bangladesh da India da Pakistan da China da Nijeriya da Indonesia kamar yadda rahoto ya nuna.

Asia da Afirka su ne lamarin ya fi shafa haka kuma su ne ba su da ababen more rayuwa ingantattu da za su taimaka wa jama’a.

Haka kuma su ne ke samun tallafi mafi kankanci na duniya. Alal misali nahiyar Afirka baki daya na samun tallafin kasa da dala 300,000 domin yaki da gurbatacciyar iska.

“An samu matukar rashin daidaito tsakanin wurin da gurbatacciyar iska ta fi kamari da kuma wurin da ake tura kudade masu yawa domin magance matsalar,” kamar yadda Christa Hasenkopf, daraktan kula da ingantacciyar iska a EPIC ya shaida wa kamfanin dillancin labarai na AFP.

Tsawon rayuwa

Duk da cewa akwai hadin gwiwar kasa da kasa kan batun kudi wanda ake kira ‘Global Fund’ wanda yake raba dala biliyan hudu kan HIV/AIDS da Maleriya da Tarin Fuka da sauran cututtuka masu barazana ga rayuwa a duk shekara, babu irin wannan kudin da ake ware wa gurbatacciyar iska.

“Duk da haka, gurbatacciyar iska na rage kwanaki na rayuwar matsakaicin mutum a DRC (Jamhuriyar Dimokuradiyyar Kwango) da Kamaru fiye da HIV/AIDS, zazzabin cizon sauro, da sauran cututtuka masu barazana ga kiwon lafiya,” in ji rahoton.

A fadin duniya, Kudancin Asia ce wannan gurbatar yanayin ta fi yi wa illa. Bangladesh da India da Nepal da Pakistan su ne kasashen da suka fi gurbatar yanayi a duk shekara ta fuskar kwayoyin da ke bin iska daga hayaki, wadanda tauraron dan adam ke ganin kwayoyin masu tsawon 2.5 microns ko kasa da haka.

Daga nan ne ake saka gurbatacciyar iskar a cikin ma’auni da ke auna ingancin iska domin auna tasirin iskar kan tsawon rayuwa.

Mazauna Bangladesh inda matsakaicin matakin ingantacciyar iska na matakin PM2.5 ke kan 74 micorgrams, za a samu karin shekaru na 6.8 na rayuwa idan aka kawo wannan kan tafarkin da WHO ta tanadar na 5 microgram kan kowace cubic meter.

Ci gaba da kokartawa

China a dayan bangaren “ta samu ci gaba matuka ta fuskar yaki da gurbatar yanayi” wanda aka soma a 2014, in ji Hasenkopf.

Gurbatacciyar iskar kasar ta ragu da kashi 42.3 cikin 100 daga 2013 zuwa 2021.

Idan aka ci gaba da samun wannan ci gaba, matsakaicin mazaunin China zai iya samun karin shekaru 2.2 a tsawon rayuwarsa.

A Amurka, dokokin majalisa kamar ‘Clean Air Act’ sun taimaka wurin rage gurbatar yanayi da kashi 64.9 cikin 100 tun daga 1970, inda lamarin ya taimaka wa Amurkawa samun karin shekara 1.4 a rayuwarsu.

Sai dai karuwar da ake samu ta wutar daji – wadda ke da alaka da yanayin zafi da bushewar wurare sakamakon sauyin yanayi — na jawo karin gurbatacciyar iska a yammacin Amurka da yankin Latin na Amurka da kudu maso gabashin Asia.

Alal misali, wutar dajin da aka yi a California ta 2021 ta sa an samu kwayoyin da ke bin iska na gurbata muhalli a yankin Plumas sama da ninki biyar bisa yadda WHO ta kayyade.

Labarin Arewacin Amurka na samun ci gaba wurin rage gurbatacciyar iska a shekarun baya-bayan nan ya yi kama da na Turai, amma har yanzu akwai bambance-bambance a tsakanin kasashen yammaci da gabashin Turai, inda Bosniya ta kasance kasa mafi gurbatar yanayi a nahiyar.

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